Capital punishment was abolished for ordinary crimes in but was retained for crimes of treason and piracy. It was re-introduced in for the crime of wilful murder, although no executions have been carried out as a result. The last execution took place on the 14 of November , when a man named Aro was hanged for the murder of his two wives. There is considerable pressure on the government in to restart executions in the wake of some very serious rape and murder cases. Executions by hanging have continued into mid and one man, Muhammed Hussain, convicted of murder by a military court was hanged on November the 14th, Executions of men convicted of terrorism resumed on the 19th of December and of murderers in March Over people have been hanged as of the beginning of August and executions are continuing. Samoa – retentionist, but not practising. The last execution took place on the 1st of April , when a man was hanged for the murder of his wife with an axe. Capital punishment for treason was abolished in and for all other crimes before , no execution having taken place in the preceding 50 years.
It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in , from the Swahili words tanga sail and nyika bright arid plain. In , Tanganyika was joined with Zanzibar, an offshore archipelago of islands, to form the present United Republic of Tanzania. Because of a unique combination of historic and cultural factors, Tanzanians share strong feelings of national pride and cohesion.
This sense of nationalism has served to keep the country at peace for over two decades, while most of its neighbors have been involved intermittently in catastrophically destructive civil and cross-border wars. Tanzanians have been able to resolve most internal problems without resorting to violence because of a shared language, the lack of political or economic dominance by any ethnic group, and the strong leadership provided by Julius Nyerere — , the first president of Tanzania.
At the same time, however, repressive, corrupting influences emanating from the colonial, socialist, and capitalist eras have fostered among many Tanzanians an attitude of dependency and fatalistic resignation that helps keep the country one of the poorest in the world.
African History African Origin of Modern Humans. As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils (discovered no where else) were found on the continent, some dating back million years.
Africa is home to some of the most remarkable natural wonders in the world. It is Earth’s oldest and most enduring landmass, with most of the continent having been where it is now for more than million years. From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia , to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa , is a distance of approximately 5, miles 8, km ; from Cape Verde , the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun in Somalia , the most easterly projection, is a distance of approximately 4, miles 7, km.
Africa’s largest country is Sudan , and its smallest country is the Seychelles , an archipelago off the east coast. The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia. According to the ancient Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt , while “Asia” was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy C.
As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. Climate Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Because of the lack of natural regular precipitation and irrigation as well as glaciers or mountain aquifer systems, there is no natural moderating effect on the climate except near the coasts.
African History African Origin of Modern Humans As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils discovered no where else were found on the continent, some dating back 3. They became aggressive hunters, lived in caves and used fire and their ability to create stone tools just to survive.
The Neanderthals arose some , years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe.
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During 12 hours of observation, the size of the plume gradually increased, but there were no audible explosions. Clouds obscured the summit the next morning and no additional observations are available. February SEAN Imagery from the NOAA 7 polar orbiter showed a small plume over the crater on most days. Although larger than most observed in February, a plume on the 9th appeared to be at low altitude and extended less than 10 km NNE. On 2 March, a plume was visible to km E of the volcano.
Low-level winds were blowing in the opposite direction, but those at Dennis Haller noted, however, that weather stations in the area are widely separated and that low-velocity winds are often quite variable in direction. On 8 March, the plume extended less than 50 km NE, again in the wrong direction for the low-altitude winds observed elsewhere in the region. Tanzania National Park Service officials in Arusha roughly km SE of the volcano reported that during activity on 2 February, an eruption column and incandescence could be seen km away.
A second eruption occurred 19 February, and as of early March activity was said to be occasional. The active vent was described as “inside the cone. Evidence of flowing lava along the road nearest the volcano was also reported. A passenger aboard a commercial airliner date of flight unknown saw lava flowing from the back of the crater and bubbling inside.
Multivariate techniques were used to evaluate environmental impacts on ground water recharge. Abstract A paucity of studies on the interaction between environment and ground water recharge severely restricts the ability of people to assess future water resources under changing environment. In this study, an effort to explore the relationship between the arid environment and ground water recharge was carried out using multivariate statistical techniques in a sedimentary drainage basin the Jungar in northwestern China.
Hierarchical cluster analysis HCA and principal components analysis PCA were performed based on hydrogeochemical data to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors. As a result, the overall recharge process is rather heterogeneous and is strongly environment dominated in the Jungar drainage system. Compared with other watersheds in arid environment, a distinctive feature of the Jungar waters is that they are affected by a combination of natural and non-natural events, rather than following a steady and continuous geological evolution.
Funchal (Portuguese pronunciation:) is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal’s Autonomous Region of Madeira, bordered by the Atlantic city has a population of ,, making it the sixth largest city in Portugal, and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries. Because of its high cultural and historical value, Funchal is one of Portugal.
Neighbouring Kenya supplies the vast majority of visitors to Tanzania, many of whom visit the country on short day trips. By the early s, tourism accounted for almost one-fifth of the gross domestic product, while the services sector on the whole accounted for almost two-fifths. Labour and taxation Some four-fifths of the Tanzanian labour force is employed in the agricultural sector. Of that group, less than one-tenth belongs to unions. Labour laws in mainland Tanzania and in Zanzibar are particular to each area, and workers in Zanzibar are not allowed to join mainland unions.
Although workers are permitted to form labour unions without authorization, many private-sector employers have adopted illegal policies that discourage the joining or formation of unions. The value-added tax VAT , the income tax , the excise tax, and imports duties contribute to the national revenue.
Africa Tourism and Tourist Information: Information about Africa Area
Abstract African snake-eyed skinks are relatively small lizards of the genera Panaspis and Afroablepharus. Species allocation of these genera frequently changed during the 20th century based on morphology, ecology, and biogeography. Members of these genera occur primarily in savanna habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa and include species whose highly conserved morphology poses challenges for taxonomic studies.
Africa Information and Tourism – The second-largest continent in existence, Africa comprises more than 50 different countries and many of the world’s most famous cities. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro is a record-breaking free-standing mountain and features no less than three volcanic cones.
The African Transition Zone cuts across the southern edge of the Sahara Desert at the widest portion of the continent. The realm can be further broken down into regional components: Maps vary in terms of which countries are included in each region, but this general geographic breakdown is helpful in identifying country locations and characteristics. Madagascar is a large island off the southeastern coast of Africa and is usually not included with the other regions because its geographic qualities and biodiversity are quite different from the mainland.
The continent of Africa is surrounded by salt water. The Indian Ocean borders it on the east, and the Atlantic is on the west. The continent of Africa has a number of small island groups that are associated with the realm and are independent countries. Approximately miles off the coast of West Africa in the North Atlantic are ten islands that make up the independent country of Cape Verde. The small country of Equatorial Guinea also includes an island off the coast of Cameroon where its capital is located.
Three island groups in the Indian Ocean around Madagascar include the independent countries of the Seychelles, Comoros, and Mauritius. Updated from map courtesy of University of Texas Libraries, http: Identify the African Transition Zone, including the transitions that are occurring in the zone.
Africa Map / Map of Africa
Neighbouring Kenya supplies the vast majority of visitors to Tanzania, many of whom visit the country on short day trips. By the early s, tourism accounted for almost one-fifth of the gross domestic product, while the services sector on the whole accounted for almost two-fifths. African elephants in the area surrounding Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Of that group, less than one-tenth belongs to unions.
Labour laws in mainland Tanzania and in Zanzibar are particular to each area, and workers in Zanzibar are not allowed to join mainland unions.
Praia (Portuguese pronunciation: lit. “beach”, in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole), is the capital and largest city: 32 of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of lies on the southern coast of Santiago island in the Sotavento Islands group. It is the island’s ferry port and is home to one of the nation’s four international airports.
Africa Continent Information and Tourism The planet’s second-largest and second-most densely populated continent, Africa is currently called home by more than one billion people, which equates to roughly 12 percent of the global population. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro is a record-breaking free-standing mountain and features no less than three volcanic cones. At the other end of the scale, Lake Assal in Djibouti is actually the lowest point in the whole of Africa, while the sweeping sand dunes of the Sahara Desert offer something completely different.
Known for its diamond mines and extensive gold resources, Africa also offers some epic tourist magnets, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt , which is actually one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. South Africa is another popular country and is where you will encounter the famous Table Mountain at Cape Town and a multitude of soaring skyscrapers in the modern metropolis of Johannesburg.
Many visitors choose to volunteer in Africa as part of an international project, giving their time freely to teach, improve human rights and carry out much-needed conservation work. Others come to Africa for its wildlife, with spreading national parks and game reserves being home to elephants, giraffes, lions and zebras, amongst many other indigenous African animals. Kenya is an especially popular safari destination in Africa and features many superb wildlife reserves.
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The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a mile 40 km front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun ; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun. While Verdun would bite deep in the national consciousness of France for generations, the Somme would have the same effect on generations of Britons. The battle is best remembered for its first day, 1 July , on which the British suffered 57, casualties, including 19, dead — the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army to this day.
As terrible as the battle was for the British Empire troops who suffered there, it naturally affected the other nationalities as well.
Lava fountaining observed from the active cone during March and July Volcanism has continued at Ol Doinyo Lengai through July Though the volcano has been erupting since (with three breaks of about a year each), the currently active spatter cone within the N crater was first noted in April (BGVN ).
Etymology[ edit ] The name Funchal was used by the first settlers that landed on its shores due to the abundance of wild fennel where, as tradition goes, the primitive burg was built. From the Portuguese word “funcho” fennel and the suffix “-al”, to denote “a plantation of fennel”: Funchal, to whom the captain gave this name, because it was founded in a beautiful forested valley, full of fennel up to the sea Manuel, Duke of Beja, dating back to the 15th century See also: Owing to its geographic location, the site became an important maritime port, whereas its productive soils became a focus of new settlers.
Its coastal position, the most productive on the island, quickly permitted Funchal to develop an urban core and surpass the populations of other settlements, which slowly gravitated around it. As part of its administrative role, the settlement received its primary lighthouse between and , when it was elevated to the status of vila and municipal seat. Funchal became an important transfer point for European commercial interests; many sailors and merchants located in Funchal in order to take advantage of the transient conditions of port.
Christopher Columbus was one of the early settlers, but later many of the merchant families established commercial interests on the island, including: By the end of the century, fronting the Order of Christ , D. A cityscape of Funchal, as seen from the Bay Funchal, The island, and Funchal specifically, were vulnerable to privateer and pirate attacks. In September , French corsairs under the command of Bertrand de Montluc, a gentleman in the court of Charles IX of France and second-son of Field Marshal Blaise de Montluc departed from Bordeaux with a force of men, on a small fleet of three main ships and eight support craft.