Lawyers should be interested in the forensic examination of disputed records for three reasons: Due diligence in court. Many attorneys are aware that forensic document examiners can determine the authenticity of a signature and perform various examinations on typewriters and printed documents. However, many attorneys do not know that additions, alterations or rewriting can also be detected — by a forensic chemist. A forensic chemist is able to do more than a forensic document examiner. A forensic chemist can: Ink dating The dating of inks is done in three primary forms.

Identification and Classification

In Depth Tutorials and Information Identification and Classification Introduction Humans have been aware of and fascinated by the patterns on their fingers for thousands of years, although there is no conclusive evidence of the first time that the unique nature of these impressions was understood. Children today who finger paint exercise a similar curiosity about the strange and beautiful patterns of lines they have created.

The evolution of fingerprint classification and identification as a science has supplied not only comprehensive knowledge of what fingerprints are and how they are formed, but also their full potential as a forensic tool. History The following timeline illustrates the progression from fascination to friction skin classification and identification as it is practiced today.

Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other, usually more famous artists. Art forgery can be extremely lucrative, but modern dating and analysis techniques have made the identification of forged artwork much simpler.

Art forgery dates back more than two thousand years. Roman sculptors produced copies of Greek sculptures. Presumably[ clarification needed ] the contemporary buyers knew that they were not genuine. During the classical period art was generally created for historical reference, religious inspiration, or simply aesthetic enjoyment. The identity of the artist was often of little importance to the buyer.

During the Renaissance , many painters took on apprentices who studied painting techniques by copying the works and style of the master. As a payment for the training, the master would then sell these works. This practice was generally considered a tribute, not forgery, although some of these copies have later erroneously been attributed to the master.


Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.

Before getting into a full investigation of the legitimacy of a work of art that you believe to be by Pablo Picasso, be it purely academic, forensic or as with most cases both methods of scrutiny, it is essential to know if the project is viable and to any degree, if it’s likely to be successful.

History[ edit ] The last remnant of old ownership marks The Vinland map first came to light in three years before the discovery of the Norse site at L’Anse aux Meadows in , bound in a slim volume with a short medieval text called the Hystoria Tartarorum usually called in English The Tartar Relation , and was unsuccessfully offered to the British Museum by London book dealer Irving Davis on behalf of a Spanish-Italian dealer named Enzo Ferrajoli de Ry. Witten II , who offered it to his alma mater, Yale University.

It was initially treated with suspicion, partly because wormholes in the map and the Relation did not match. In spring , however, Witten’s friend Thomas Marston, a Yale librarian, acquired from London book dealer Irving Davis a dilapidated medieval copy of books of Vincent of Beauvais ‘s encyclopedic Speculum historiale “Historical Mirror” , written in two columns on a mix of parchment and paper sheets, with initial capitals left blank, which turned out to be the missing link; the wormholes showing that it had formerly had the map at its beginning and the Relation at its end.

All traces of former ownership marks, except for a small part of a bright pink stamp which overlapped the writing on folio of the Speculum, had been removed, perhaps to avoid tax liability for the former owner although as historian Kirsten Seaver noted many years later, stamps on random book pages indicate institutional, not private ownership. Recognizing its potential importance as the earliest map unambiguously showing America, Mellon insisted that its existence be kept secret until a scholarly book had been written about it.

Even the three authors of the book were chosen from among the small number of people who had seen the map before Mellon bought it—two British Museum curators and Marston. Only one of them, Dr. Raleigh Ashlin Skelton , keeper of the Museum’s map collection, had significant expertise relevant to the problems posed by the map his colleague George Painter , the first person to whom Davis had shown the map in , was brought in for the transcription and translation of the Relation and the secrecy almost completely ruled out consultation with specialists.

The book was published, and the map revealed to the world, the day before Columbus Day , Many academic reviewers of the book took the opportunity to point out evidence that called the map’s authenticity into question, so a year later, a Vinland Map Conference was held at the Smithsonian Institution , during which further significant questions were asked, particularly of Witten, who gave very straightforward and helpful answers; but, the proceedings were not published for another five years.

The unstippled area at the northern tip represents land not surveyed until after Academic controversies, — [ edit ] There were questions about the actual content of the map.

Handwriting Expert, Forensic Document Examiner, Forgery Exam

We offer over 37 years of experience and training in a wide range of forensic science and private investigation disciplines. We specialize in ink dating, handwriting, art dating, questioned document examinations, fraud detection and forensic analysis. Stewart was born in Asheville, North Carolina. Stewart has worked for the U.

Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years.

The problems. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount.

Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.

Cantu in the s. Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Ink Comparison Approach 3.

Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then: The presence of the same printing defects on the contested document and comparison documents or the same patterns of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints may yield valuable information concerning the dating of the contested document.

The physical optical and chemical examinations of writing inks, as well as other materials used in the production of documents paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, typewriter ribbon ink, carbon paper ink, stamp pad ink, etc. The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.

Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.

Federal Forensic Associates Inc. Ink and Paper Analysis

Yes, forensic document examiners are handwriting experts, but forensic document examiners do not usually use the term handwriting expert to refer to themselves. The courts and attorneys commonly use the term handwriting expert; however, most forensic document examiners believe the term handwriting expert is too limiting. Forensic document examiners perform a much wider range examinations than handwriting examination, comparison, and identification.

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Undertaken with a view to establishing a fully, internationally accepted, well proven and correctly underpinned certification of a work of art. Items which may have a specific signature claim, those with an earlier expert qualification of authenticity, as well as those that currently have none. This requires dedicated, detailed, expert academic and archival research, which is usually necessary to conduct internationally, along with a variety of forensic applications.

Identifying and confirming the identity of a previously anonymous artist, or the studio or workshop from which a work of art probably first came. An artist which may not have been previously formerly identified or associated with it. Re-examining and investigating a previously assigned artist attribution which is possibly incorrect, or one that has been formally challenged or questioned.

Conducting the multilingual research required for the investigation and confirmation of the provenance, history, lineage and prior ownership of a work of art. Identifying fakes and forgeries, determining those works of art which may be studio or later copies, or previously misrepresented and wrongful attributions. Investigating alleged art fraud and forgery issues, assisting and advising those litigating or prosecuting the fact.

Conducting all fine art related due diligence and duty of care enquiries, prepurchase or sale related studies and advising clients in matters of consolidating safe and secure future family distribution. Simply put, we are here to help in all fine art related matters With a view to establishing a flawless case for clients, Freemanart investigate works of art from all genres, eras and most geographical origins.

Handwriting analysis expert, forensic art dating, questioned documents, ink

New York Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided in Massachusetts Areas of Expertise: California Areas of Expertise: Fisher Forensic Document Laboratory, Inc.

Nov 18,  · Ink dating dating ink and paper examinations how online dating habits the forensic document is known for told Fritz to bring him some stout thread from the he had gone a little farther thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother.

In order to address these challenges, an attempt was made to study the rate of diffusion of inks at different time intervals using hyperspectral imaging. The study was carried out to quantify the amount of ink diffusion using luminosity as a parameter at different intervals of time by preparing a Common Reference Index Value CRIV and to assess whether particular writings were made at the same period of time. This study reveals that there are noticeable differences in the rates of diffusion of the same classes of inks, depending on time interval.

This new approach can determine the relative age of the ink, in a nondestructive manner, from any two writings created at different periods of time with the same class of ink. Many attempts have been made to determine the age of ink in the last 30 years. Different techniques have been used, based on the study of chemical and physical properties of various types of inks. Not all published methods are reliable, however, and some have been heavily criticized Hofer, This is because the concepts of absolute and relative aging are not clearly understood.

No specific data bank regarding the chemical compositions and dye components for the various ink types is available. Moreover, there are many factors affecting the rate of aging, and almost all techniques used to determine age are destructive in nature. Ball pen inks are made up of colorants dyes and pigments and a carrier vehicle. The carrier contains most of the substances that age or change with time.

Two important aspects of these components are the ballpoint ink solvents used to dissolve or disperse the colorants, and the resins used to thicken the inks. The solvents evaporate with time, and the resins harden or set by oxidation with time.

Art forgery

There may be terms not in this Standard that appear in other sources. See Randomly acquired characteristic. Any material coated with a tacky substance for the purpose of lifting footwear or fingerprint impressions. A globule of air trapped within a solid material such as a footwear sole. The proportion of the tire’s height to its width. A tire tread pattern where when a tread design is divided circumferentially, one half of the tread design is not a mirror image of the other half.

Identification and dating of the fountain pen ink entries on documents by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography. Forensic Science International, Vol, pp Waters, C. E. (). inks.

Edge of a hole burned through a floor. Samples from absolutely nonporous surfaces. The center of any burn pattern. In general, areas exposed to greatest hear, hose streams. Select Tools and Clean Them. Once you have selected an area for sampling, clean your tools and turnout gear before you bring them into the fire scene and clean again between samples. Concentrated liquid dishwashing detergents effective at dissolving grease, including Ultra Dawn Concentrated Dishwashing Detergent, have also been found effective in dissolving ignitable liquid residue on steel tools when scrubbed with a clean scrub brush and flushed with clean water.

Note that ignitable liquids derived from crude oil are generally not soluble in water alone. Be sure to submit a sample of the liquid detergent to your forensic laboratory to ascertain its properties and ingredients. If investigators have an accelerant detection canine or sensitive hydrocarbon detector available consider using it to double-check the tools after cleaning and prior to use. In addition, some types of common equipment bristle brooms and safety gear firefighter gloves probably cannot be cleaned once contaminated with ignitable liquid residue.

Always use latex gloves to process evidence. Select an Evidence Can It is recommended that fire investigators carry a supply of both one-quart and one-gallon “paint style” evidence cans, or their equivalent, in which to store residue samples. A good housekeeping practice is to take a new, sealed one-quart can and place it into a one-gallon can and seal that before placing it in your vehicle or kit.

ADLC – Elementary Science: Ink Analysis